Remember the days when your manual typewriter didn’t have a key for the number 1, so you used a lowercase letter L instead? And to type an exclamation point, you typed an apostrophe first, backspaced, and then typed a period beneath it? Sure you do, punk.
Clarification: I’m not that old; my high school was poor. We pasted our newspaper dummies together with wax and made type changes with a dull razor.
Well, we don’t type that way anymore, because technology has blessed us with 1s and !s on our keyboards. Likewise, because we are capable of rendering type in italics, you underline titles only when writing them by hand or using software that doesn’t italicize. As long as you remember that underlining equals italics and to never underline when you can italicize, you’re good.
You can get pretty far by following the “Big/heavy equals italics” (like books) and “Small/light equals quotes” (like poems) generalizations.
As for enclosing titles in quotation marks or italicizing them, you can get pretty far by following the “Big/heavy equals italics” (like books) and “Small/light equals quotes” (like poems) generalizations, but Associated Press style doesn’t italicize nothin’ and Chicago style has layers of specificity and if-then statements. Fun!
Because the Associated Press stylebook is not indexed and the manual for Chicago style covers title style in several sections (intermixed with name style and capitalization style), some title styles may have been inadvertently omitted due to oblivion on my part. Please send me a note if any oversight makes you twitch.
It’s all arbitrary, so go for clarity and sustainability.
Following is the breakdown between AP style and Chicago style. This is intended as a quick rundown or cheat sheet; for examples of each, please refer to the pages and sections indicated. “Neither” means that the usual headline-style (or title-style) caps still apply, but the title/name is naked as far as quotes and italics are concerned. (Capitalization for titles will be covered in a future blog entry.)
Note: Use Command-F or Ctrl-F to perform searches.
|Titles for . . .||AP||Chicago|
|Albums||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.192)|
|Almanacs||Neither (p. 62)|
|Apps||Neither (p. 62), e.g., Facebook, Foursquare||Italics (8.193)|
|Art||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.193)|
|Bible||Neither (p. 62)|
|Blog entries||Quotes (8.187)|
|Books||Quotes (p. 62)—but the Bible and catalogs of reference material use neither||Italics (8.166)—but book series and editions use neither (8.174)|
|Catalogs||Neither (p. 62)|
|Classical music, nicknames||Quotes (p. 63)|
|Classical music, identified by sequence||Neither (p. 63)|
|Columns (in periodicals)||Neither (8.175, 14.205)|
|Comic strips||Italics (8.194)|
|Computer games and computer-game apps||Quotes (p. 62), e.g., “Farmville”||Italics (Chicago Style Q&A)|
|Computer software||Neither for software such as WordPerfect or Windows (p. 62)|
|Conferences||Neither (8.69)—unless it has “status,” then use quotes|
|Departments (in periodicals)||Neither (8.175, 14.202)|
|Dictionaries||Neither (p. 62)|
|Directories||Neither (p. 62)|
|Encyclopedias||Neither (p. 62)|
|Exhibitions (large)||Neither (8.195)|
|Exhibitions (small)||Italics (8.195)|
|Fairs (large)||Neither (8.195)|
|Fairs (small)||Italics (8.195)|
|Gazetteers||Neither (p. 62)|
|Handbooks||Neither (p. 62)|
|Journals||Italics (8.166)—unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)|
|Lecture series||Neither (8.86)|
|Lectures (individual)||Quotes (p. 62)||Quotes (8.86)|
|Magazines||Neither (p. 159)||Italics (8.166)—unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)|
|Meetings||Neither (8.69)—unless it has “status,” then use quotes|
|Movies||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.185)|
|Newspapers||Italics (8.166)—unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)|
|Operas||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.189)—for long musical compositions or instrumental works, see 8.189-8.190|
|Periodicals||Italics (8.166), unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)|
|Plays||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.181)|
|Podcast episodes||Quotes (8.187)|
|Poems||Quotes (p. 62)||Quotes (8.179)—unless book length, then treated as book (italics)|
|Radio episodes (in series)||Quotes (8.185)|
|Radio programs and series||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.185)|
|Short stories||Quotes (8.175)|
|Songs||Quotes (p. 62)||Quotes (8.189)|
|Speeches||Quotes (p. 62)||Neither (8.75)—unless it has “status,” then use quotes.|
|Television episodes (in series)||Quotes (8.185)|
|Television programs and series||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.185)|
|Unpublished works||Quotes (8.184)|
|Video blogs||Italics (8.187)|
|Video-blog episodes||Quotes (8.187)|
|Web pages and sections||Quotes (8.186)|
When it gets confusing, just remember these golden rules of copyediting:
- Whatever you choose, be consistent.
- But beware of having a tin ear.
- It’s all arbitrary, so go for clarity and sustainability.
Simply put: no.
APA's Publication Manual (2010) indicates that, in the body of your paper, you should use italics for the titles of:
- periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers)
- TV shows
- Microfilm publications
Beyond APA's specific examples, know that certain types of titles are almost always written in italics.
Use italics in a word-processed document for the types of titles you'd underline if you were writing by hand. A general rule of thumb is that within the text of a paper, italicize the title of complete works but put quotation marks around titles of parts within a complete work.
The table below isn't comprehensive, but it's a good starting point
|Titles in Italics||Titles Placed in "Quotation Marks"|
|Title of a periodical (magazine, journal, newspaper)||Title of article in a periodical|
|Title of a book||Title of a chapter in a book|
|Title of a movie or play||Name of an act or scene in a movie or a play|
|Title of a television or radio series||Title of an episode within a tv or radio series|
|Title of a musical album or CD||Title of a song|
|Title of a long poem||Title of a short poem|
|Names of operas or long musical composition|
|Names of paintings and sculptures|
Title of a short story
On an APA-style reference page, the rules for titles are a little different. In short, a title you would italicize within the body of a paper will also be italicized on a reference page. However, a title you'd place in quotation marks within the body of the paper (such as the title of an article within a journal) will be written in normal lettering and will not be in quotation marks.
Here are some examples:
Smith (2001) research is fully described in the Journal of Higher Education.
Smith's (2001) article "College Admissions See Increase" was published in the Journal of Higher Education after his pivotal study on the admissions process.